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CASE STUDY ON APPROACHES FOR SUPPORTING PASTORALISTS GROUPS FACING CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS IN TANZANIA

Climate change Study Findings

The Irish Aid Climate Change and Development Learning Platform seeks to build the capacity of Irish Aid staff and partner’s to incorporate climate change into development programming and improve tracking and reporting of climate change activities.  The Learning Platform (LP) commissioned IIED to undertake a number of case studies to assess how climate change is being integrated into development planning either by governments or development agencies in those countries in which Irish Aid has programmes.  Pastoralists Programme implemented by TNRF in partnership with CARE, Promoting adaptation and climate resilience growth through devolved district climate finance (IIED/Haki Kazi Catalyst), and Pastoralism Programme(OXFAM) all funded by Irish were selected in this case study.  

The aim of the study was to identify, generate and share the learning drawn from 3 case study approaches to supporting pastoralist groups in Tanzania, and to identify strengths of approaches and support to local adaptation in the drylands.

The field work for data collection was carried out from 10Th -22nd  June 2015, leaded by Sam Greene , Consultant, IIED; assisted  by Zakaria Faustin – TNRF Pastoralists Programme Manager, Marcely Madubi – Care Pastoralist Program Coordinator, and Julian Dalika – Care Pastoralist Program M+E Officer. The studies consisted of an appreciative enquiry into approaches for supporting pastoralist groups facing Climate change effects in Tanzania.  Other tools used were TAMD and Climate Resilience Spectrum. The study was conducted guided by the following key guiding questions:

  • How far did benefits achieved match the planned Theories of Change?
  • What were the most effective ways of achieving benefits?
  • How well was climate change integrated into planning?
  • What was most effective at driving this change?
  • To what extent could adaptations and changes be considered “radical” or transformational?
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A Coalition of Farmers and Pastoralists; An Alternative Paradigm to Resolving Land Use Conflicts

Introduction

Land use conflict between pastoralists and farmers in Tanzania has existed for many years (Maghimbi et al., 2012). The causes and effects of these conflicts have varied from one place to another. Researchers (HAKIADHI, 2010; PINGOs 2011; Maghimbi et al., 2012; Massay, 2014; TNRF, 2014; and Ngowi, 2015) have identified absence of land use planning, the wave of green grabbing, increased large scale agricultural investments, weak policy and institutional framework, corrupt leaders and skepticism toward pastoralism as viable livelihood option as some of the contributing causes of the longstanding conflict between these two groups of producers. Over the years, the media has often reported killings of people and livestock and the loss of properties due to these conflicts. Efforts have been made by different actors, including civil society organizations, to address this problem through mass education, land use planning, organizing communities and building citizen voices, and through policy reforms. However, these efforts have not yet managed to end this problem.

This brief, tries to document the work that Tanzania Natural Resource Forum (TNRF) has done in addressing farmer-pastoralists conflicts in Pawaga division in Iringa District. The approach that TNRF used was building an understanding of the political economy of the conflicts among the victims which then created debating community of farmers and pastoralists. Finally, the movement that brought together farmers and pastoralists started.  This peasant movement has provided an alternative option to deal with the problem. We have shown in this brief some of the early successes of this approach.

The findings of this brief are based on the field works conducted by TNRF between October, 2014 and November, 2015.TNRF’s intervention in Pawaga division started by a baseline study which was conducted in September 2014 and was followed by field works which include stakeholder meetings and trainings from October, 2014.  The brief has four parts: the introduction, Pawaga as the epicenter of farmer-pastoralists conflicts, epistemic community of farmers and pastoralists, and the way forward. Throughout this brief, we argue that conflict between farmers and pastoralists are often caused by factors that are beyond their control. We also maintain that there are groups that instigate and benefit from these conflicts and thus want the conflict to continue. Moreover, this brief urges that the understanding of the political economy is very important before addressing such conflicts.  We conclude that the state has a key role to play in seeking a sustainable way to end these conflicts. However, we underscore that farmers and pastoralists can reach a lasting solution to their problem by discussing their issues openly and in united groups. The subsequent parts of this brief discuss these in details.

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Best Practice of the Village Land Act in Iringa and Chemba District

The year 2016, marks 15th anniversary of the implementation of the Village Land Act. This is a piece of legislation which regulates governance and administration of village lands in Tanzania. TNRF has contributed the implementation process in the areas of land rights awareness raising, land use planning, institutional strengthening and recognition of women land rights. These are well captured this documentary.
 
Click below to view the documentary...
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Contribution of Pastoralism to the National Economy

TNRF in-collaboration and care international with support from Irish aid through Pastoralist programme has produced a TV spot that demonstrate contribution of pastoralism to the national economy. The TV spot will be aired in national TV – TBC1 commencing on 15thJanuary until 15th March 2016 consecutively and will be around 6pm to 9pm.

Pastoralist Programme (PP) is one of the programmes implemented by TNRF. The programme is implemented in partnership with CARE and is a four year project funded by Irish Aid.  The programme is implemented through registered Tanzanian civil society organizations (CSOs) or community based organizations (CBOs) that work to improve the capacity of communities to overcome poverty, reduce vulnerability and strengthen the rights of men and women for sustainable livelihoods.

Click below to view the spot.

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